Merited Worker of Science of the RSFRS, an outstanding psychologist, Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences Peter Yakovlevich Halperin was born on October 2, 1902 in Moscow. His contribution to science lies in the fact that he not only introduced such a concept into psychology as the systematic development of orientation toward future action, but also created on its basis a theory of the gradual formation of mental actions. p> Creating a theory
The creation of the theory dates back to 1952, when Halperin presented it to the scientific community as a hypothesis of the formation of mental action. The theory was based on the idea of a possible genetic relationship between mental operations and its external expressions in the form of practical actions. This assumption is based on the fact that children's thinking develops mainly through a connection with the objective activity, when the child interacts directly with objects. p>
Halperin's main conclusions were based on the fact that an external action can gradually turn into an internal one, passing through a series of specific stages that are closely interconnected and cannot exist without each other. Halperin's theory of the phased formation of the action does not lose its relevance to this day. p> Subsystems
Halperin divided the system of systematically-phased formation of mental actions into four components: p> Formation of adequate motivation. Ensuring receipt by the action of the desired properties. Formation of an indicative basis of activity. Ensuring the transfer of action in the mental plan.
It is on these four subsystems that Halperin’s theory of phased mental actions is built. The system was further developed in the division into 6 stages. p> The main stages
The theory of Halperin implied the presence of six stages of the formation of mental action: motivation, indicative basis, material actions, external speech actions, external speech "about oneself", mental actions. p> It all starts with the stage of motivation - this is the creation of a motivating individual attitude towards understanding and mastering actions. The second stage is the formation of an indicative basis for future action. This stage is carried out by familiarizing in practice with the content of the future mental action. Also, do not forget about the final requirements for action. The third stage is the stage of actions with real objects by their deputies. That is, material or materialized actions. The essence of this stage lies in the practical assimilation and awareness of the action using the desired items. The fourth stage is external speech actions. This period is characterized by further assimilation, but already the person does not rely on real-life objects. The process itself begins with the transfer of external action to the internal plan. Halperin believed that this transfer of action to speech is not just dubbing, but speech performing the action. The fifth stage - the speech "about myself". By the end of a certain mental action, the process no longer requires the work of external speech, it completely moves into the internal speech. The final stage is the stage of mental action. The sixth stage is the completion of the transition of the process of the formation of mental actions into the internal plan, that is, the speech component is nowhere. However, it is at the final stage that the action undergoes significant transformations. It can shrink, automate and completely leave the sphere of consciousness.
Each of the listed stages assumes reduction of the action, which at the initial stage is carried out in the expanded form. Halperin and the theory of the phased formation of action - a new word in educational psychology. p> The system of properties of human action
P. Ya. Halperin made a lot of effort to create a theory of a systematic and phased formation of mental actions. But subsequently there was an urgent need for a subsequent assessment of the quality of the action already formed. That is why, after the theory of the formation of mental actions, the professor created a system of properties of human actions. Peter Yakovlevich divided all properties into two components: p> Primary parameters of the action - characterize any human action. The basis of this group is the completeness of the properties of the system, the separation of essential and non-essential relations, level the implementation of the action, power and temporal characteristics. Secondary action parameters - reflect the result of the combination of the primary parameters. This group includes rationality, awareness, criticality, a measure of development.
Only in aggregate, the data of the theory of Halperin P. Ya. Reflect the whole essence of mental actions. p> The method of planned and phased formation of mental activity
Psychological mechanisms are revealed exclusively in the process of implementation of the action, while in the process of formation the action may change significantly, and the study of the result is not possible. This pattern served as the basis for creating the idea of a formative experiment, which was just based on the method of planned and phased formation of mental actions. P. Ya. Halperin proposed to direct forces not to search for what has already been formed, but to create conditions for formation that can be controlled. p>
This method is based on the concept of the implementation of a specific action with already formed properties and features. Thanks to this technique, it is possible to reveal the relationship not only between the content of the action and the conditions of its assimilation, but also between the characteristics of the result of the activity. p>
This invention of the scientist has opened up truly ample opportunities for the practical use of the theory of the formation of mental actions in the learning process. After some time, the professor noted that the method of planned-phased formation contributed to the identification of psychological mechanisms. p> The value of the theory
The theory of Halperin P. Ya. Had both theoretical and practical significance. The thoughts of the professor made a real sensation not only in psychology, but also in pedagogy. p> theoretical value
The theoretical value of the methodology is as follows: p> Pyotr Yakovlevich Halperin actually created a specific unit of analysis of the human psyche - this is a mental human action that is distinguished by awareness and purposefulness. The method of forming Halperin's mental action in accordance with previously determined properties has become a real tool in the psychology and development of the spiritual life of man. The world saw this approach as a formative experiment. A new word in psychology is a quality control system for performing one or another mental action.
This theory has become the basis for the work of many psychologists. p> Practical value
In addition to theoretical value, the theory received its recognition in the practical field: p> This method contributes to the automation of mental activity, that is, significantly reduces the time of formation and development of skills, not only without loss of quality, but also with an increase in this indicator. The method of forming mental actions at all levels of education, from kindergarten to university, is used. The theory of Peter Yakovlevich Halperin served as the basis for the implementation of a sufficient number of applied projects. Their essence was to improve the content and the learning process.
This theory of Halperin on the formation of mental actions has become one of the most famous in the Soviet and Russian educational psychology. p>
Peter Yakovlevich made an invaluable contribution to the development of psychology. In October 2012, in honor of the professor, an international scientific conference was held, the name of which is “New life of classical theory”. Timed the event for the 110th birthday of P. Ya. Halperin. The main topic of the conference is the contribution of the professor to the pedagogical psychology, the development of his theories in modern times, as well as the actual problems of using the general psychological concept of the scientist. p> An example of using the theory
In order to understand the theory of mental action Halperin P. Ya., You can refer to this example. The Russian language teacher needs to teach his student not to make specific grammatical errors. To do this, you can write on the cards those rules that cause problems in use. Cards are laid out in the sequence in which they should be used in the written phrase. The learning process begins with the fact that the student reads out the first rule out loud, then applies it to the written phrase, then reads the second rule out loud and also applies it to the desired sentence. And this happens with all the rules drawn on the cards. By the second stage, the student already knows all the rules by heart, the teacher must pick up the cards, and the student repeats the rules out loud without their help. The next stage is to pronounce the rules “for oneself”, all the same with their application to the sentence. By the final stage, according to Halperin's theory of the formation of mental actions, the student is already able to independently use the learned rule on a subconscious level, without reading it either out loud or "about himself." p>
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