Friends have sent us copies of the following clipping from the Chicago Inter-Ocean, asking to know if it is genuine, to which we reply, No. First for the reason that there is not, nor has there ever been a "Second Book of Mormon;" therefore, second, "the Mormons" do not "consider these books in the same light that Christians consider the Old and New Testaments." Third, Joseph Smith never claimed to translate anything from "two large copper plates;" fourth, he never claimed to find on any plates figures of "crowns, the crucifixion, and other such signs;" fifth, he never pretended to translate with "magic spectacles" at Nauvoo, or anywhere else, "copies and descriptions" of hieroglyphics that had been "sent all over the old world to prominent hieroglyphists for translation," Here is the clipping:
"SECOND BOOK OF MORMON.""Metamora, Ill., Jan. 30th -- The Inter-Ocean of the 27th contained an account of the origin of the "Book of Mormon," which reminded your correspondent of what he knows of the translation and origin of the "Second Book of Mormon." Every one who is at all acquainted with their history will know that this Second Book came to light just prior to the evacuation of Nauvoo, and that the Mormons consider these books much in the same light that Christians consider the Old and New Testaments.
"An account of the Second Book may prove interesting to most of your readers. After having read the statements to follow all will agree that it is not only possible, but very probable that the First Book was no more of divine origin than the Second Book.
"The facts are as follows: Some time before the demise of Joseph Smith, the Mormon leader, one John Fugate, who then lived in or near Quincy, Illinois, conceived a little plan by which to startle the natives. He obtained two large copper plates of a blacksmith (whom, of course, he had to let in on the secret) and they thereon engraved, by the use of wax and acid, some signs and symbols. The plates were mostly covered, I think, with a writing very similar to the Egyptian hieroglyphics, and around on the margin were figures of the sun, crowns, the crucifixion, and other such signs of similar character. And then with paint, or acid, and iron filings they covered them with a very good imitation of rust. They then bound them together with a rusty wire, went to the woods and buried them between two huge flat stones, and deep down in an old Indian mound. They covered them up carefully, replaced the sod and dirt and awaited developments.
"On a day that there was a big religious gathering in town they went to the woods with the avowed purpose of excavating a well-known Indian mound, and returned with these plates. Of course their find soon became known and everyone in town was interested, and particularly so when the rust (?) was taken off and the marks exposed.
"Joseph Smith, hearing of this and seeing therein a strong hit in his favor, proclaimed them to be connected with the Mormon religion, and set about to have them translated. For this purpose they, or copies and descriptions of them, were sent all over the old world to prominent hieroglyphists for translation. But the problem came back unsolved, and many letters were written to Mr. Fugate concerning the same. Undaunted, however, Smith put on his magic spectacles and proceeded to translate from the Second Book of Mormon.
"This is not quite all. Mr. Fugate, thinking the joke had gone far enough, told the whole affair to one of the leading Methodists in town. The Methodists immediately spread the news far and wide. Owing to the anger of the Mormons, Mr. Fugate was obliged to quietly leave to avoid being murdered by them. Mr. Fugate died at Camp Point, Adams county, three years ago, but his wife and all his family still live. His oldest son, Dr. J. T. Fugate, of Urbana, Illinois, has all the newspaper reports, documents, and letters concerning the case, and would no doubt be glad to verify these statements to any person skeptically inclined."
The transaction to which the above probably relates, and (if so), of which it is a false and misleading perversion, is described as follows by John Hyde in his book against "Mormonism," pages 265-269, when arguing and seeking to explain away the divine origin of the Book of Mormon:
"It is a fact that Smith did copy some characters on to a slip of paper, which he sent by Martin Harris to Professor Anthon. It is also a fact, that the description of the characters made by the Professor, does somewhat resemble the description of the glyphs of Otolum, made subsequently by Professor Rafinesque (Atlantic Journal, 1832, Professor Rafinesque). Of this similarity O. Pratt makes great capital as a proof of the Book of Mormon. I admit the resemblance. It is also a fact that eight men testified that Smith had shown them several plates curiously engraved; that they "did handle and heft them;" and that they knew Smith had them. Although, as before shown, these plates could not have been the pretended golden Bible, yet I think there can be no doubt that these men told the truth as to seeing and handling certain plates, and that Smith had them. Unless Smith had got something, he could never have originated the idea of the book; could not have copied the characters sent to Professor Anthon by Martin Harris; still more, those characters could not have happened to resemble engravings subsequently found; and as these eight do not pretend, as to the three, to have seen them with all the ridiculous concomitants of the eye of faith and coming of angels, it is reasonable to believe that Smith really possessed some plates. If their testimony is credible, it proves that he not only had them, but that he kept them, and not delivered them 'up to the angel,' as he elsewhere pretends. To possess the plates is one thing, to have received them from God is quite another. To admit that he had them does not admit the truth of the Book of Mormon.
"'How did he get them?'
"On the 16th of April, 1843, a respectable merchant, by the name of Robert Wiley, commenced digging in a large mound near this place. He excavated to the depth of ten feet, and came to rock. On the 23d. he and quite a number of the citizens, with myself, repaired to the mound, and after making ample opening, we found plenty of rock, the most of which appeared as though it had been strongly burned; and after removing full two feet of said rock, we found plenty of charcoal and ashes; also human bones, that appeared as though they had been burned; and near the eciphalon a bundle was found, that consisted of SIX PLATES OF BRASS, of a bell-shape, each having a hole near the small end, and a ring through them all, and clasped with two clasps. the ring and clasps appeared to be of iron, very much oxydated: the plates first appeared to be copper, and had the appearance of being covered with characters. It was agreed by the company that I should cleanse the plates. Accordingly, I took them to my house, washed them with soap and water, and a woolen cloth; but finding them not yet cleansed, I treated them with dilute sulphuric acid, which made them perfectly clean, on which it appeared that they were completely covered with characters, that none, as yet, have been able to read. They were found, I judge, more than twelve feet below the surface of the top of the mound.
"'I am, respectfully, a citizen of Kinderhook,' "'W. P. HARRIS, M. D.'"
"The following certificate was forwarded for publication at the same time:
"'We citizens of Kinderhook, whose names are annexed, do certify and declare, that on the 23d of April, 1843, while excavating a large mound in the vicinity, Mr. R. Wiley took from said mound six brass plates, of a bell-shape, covered with ancient characters. Said plates were very much oxydated. The bands and rings on said plates moldered into dust on a slight pressure.'"ROBERT WILEY, J. R. SHARP, GEORGE DECKENSON, IRA S. CURTIS, W. LONGNECKER. FAYETTE GRUBB, G. W. F. WARD, W. P. HARRIS, W. FUGATE.
"The characters on these plates also resemble Professor Anthon's description: 'The characters were arranged in columns like the Chinese mode of writing, and presented the most singular medley I ever saw. Greek, Hebrew, and all sorts of letters, more of less distorted, were intermingled, with sundry delineations of half moons, stars and other natural objects, and the whole ended in a rude representation of the Mexican Zodiac." (Professor Anthon's letter.) Professor Rafinesque describes the glyphs of Otolum, Mexico, as being 'written from top to bottom like the Chinese.' 'The most common way of writing is in rows, and each group separated.' (Atlantic Journal for 1832). This similarity between the characters on Wiley's plates and Professor Rafinesque's description, does not prove that Wiley got his plates from an angel. However much the characters on Smith's plates may have resembled either of the above, it does not any the more prove that Smith got his plates from an angel either." -- Mormonism by John Hyde.
Of this matter the Times and Seasons published in Nauvoo, Illinois, May 1st, 1843, only a few days after the alleged discovery of the above plates, has this to say: (view original article from 1843)...
Kinderhook and not Quincy, many miles distant, is where these plates were said to have been discovered.
We are not aware that Joseph Smith ever claimed to have translated the above mentioned plates, or accepted them as genuine, much less to translate a "Second Book of Mormon." There are many newspapers and their correspondents ever ready to cry "hoax!" "humbug!!" "delusion!!!" and yet when weighed in the balances they are found to be the class foreshown in the Scriptures who are "deceiving, and being deceived." This Inter-Ocean correspondent is one -- but not a very brilliant one -- of that despicable class.
THE DREADFUL DEMING.A person named Arthur B. Deming has begun the publication of a paper which he calls "Naked Truths About Mormonism." It will be given in monthly doses at fifty cents per year, or five cents per copy. He begs the public, Mormon or otherwise, to buy, as he wishes to obtain means to exhume and re-inter his father, who had the misfortune to be buried in a cemetery which has since been utilized as a pasture lot for horses and cows. In the meantime he will indulge his goulish propensities, he hopes with profit, by slavering with his imbecile and obscene drivel, the reputation of other people's fathers and mothers, provided they are dead and unable to call him to account. In short, one way or another, he lives on the dead, and has added new terrors to the grave.
At the top of the first page of his paper he says, -- "Read and laugh as you never laughed before." There is indeed matter for mirth in his paper, but not in the way he intended. Where he and his statement-makers intend to be merry, they are sad, shallow or disgusting, but when they mean to be serious, then they are foolishly funny.
Having paid my "nickle" on Mr. Deming's representation that his was a humorous paper, I shall endeavor to obtain mirth to that amount, and being of a benevolent disposition, I will try to place the same within the reach of others, freed from the gratuitous nastiness with the Deming school of humorists embellish their remarks. Remember, the distinguishing trait of Deming's character is ghoulishness. To be attacked by him, you must first be dead. So, too, his most "edifying" statements are not published during their author's lifetime. He usually collects such from the mumblings of irresponsible dotage, possibly supplying whatever malice and depravity they may require to bring them down to the Deming standard, after which he waits until the alleged author has, as he says, "departed in the triumph of a living faith," and then he rushes into print. In fact, there seems to be a sad fatality about making a statement to him. Deming appears to be a synonym for death. After a "Salutatory," Mr. Deming begins his "Introduction" thus:
While fasting and reading the Old Testament in New York City, in 1880 or '81, I was strongly impressed that I had revealed to me (not by Mormon Revelation) the principal reasons for great intellect in children. While on a visit to Boston, in September, 1881, I spoke to a prominent physician about it. He replied it was new to him, and said, "Talk it wherever you go." I did as far as Minneapolis, Minnesota, and went to Colorado and Salt Lake City, where I was kindly received by leading Mormons."
It is deplorable that those no doubt occult reasons for "remarkable intellect in children" were not revealed to the ancestors of Mr. Deming. He states elsewhere that he has written much presumably valuable matter on the subject of "heredity;" that his paper is a "Journal for newly apprehended truths," and that if those who believe in the Book of Mormon, will read his paper, it would make them "free." In other words, he will teach you that the gospel plan of salvation is out of date. That you are not responsible for your meanness. Blame it on your grandmother, especially if she is dead.
During Mr. Deming's stay in Salt Lake, he was the guest of Gen. Wells, concerning whom one of his paragraphs reads as follows:
"One evening the General commenced to preach Mormonism to me. He began about Bro. Joseph and the Hill Cumorah. I laughed and said, None of that, it would do no good. I afterward regretted I did not hear his argument. He desisted, but in a few minutes handed me the Wells genealogy, and requested me to read a statement he showed me. It read: 'In 1666, at Wethersfield, Connecticut, Gov. Thaddeus Wells married Elizabeth Foot, daughter of John Deming,' and then he claimed a relationship, and to make it stronger he offered me two of his daughters, before I left the city, who were own sisters, for wives, which offer I declined (no reflection intended towards the ladies, one of whom has since married and died with her first child)."
However it was, by missing Deming, in the language of sweet Ophelia, she "made a good escape/" It is not certified that either of the girls was a party to the proposal for Mr. Deming's hand; and if it was made at all, doubtless Gen. Wells was merely working that fund of merriment of which Mr. Deming is unconsciously the source. It is not my wish to defend any of the heresies which were introduced by Brigham Young to subvert the faith once delivered to the Saints, but I protest that the sins of Utah will become respectable if they are long opposed by such men as Mr. Deming. He makes no distinction between the genuine church and the Utah counterfeit. He does not attempt to refute our doctrines, but preferred rather to breathe the venom of his slanderous breath upon the record of the man through whom the everlasting gospel was restored to earth; the man who was faithful unto death; the man who exchanged a world unworthy of him for a martyr's crown in heaven.
Early in life, Mr. Deming appears to have manifested that peculiar kind of thrift for which he has ever since been remarkable. He remarks that when a mere child, it was his business to show visiting "Mormons" through the Carthage jail and describe to them the killing of Joseph Smith and his brother by the mob. Occasionally, he says, in delightful retrospect, they gave him a "picayune or bit." His mother told him the "Mormons" were poor, and not to accept anything from them. He adds, "I did not knowingly," and considering how little he knows to-day, it was no doubt true. He says, "I write these few of many similar facts to convince all Mormons that from childhood I have been friendly to them." It is evident, however, that he uses the word "friendly" in its cannibalistic sense merely.
Concerning Mr. Deming's father he states, that pending his trial for killing a man in self-defense, he
"Removed his flannel during a very hot day late in August, and caught cold, which resulted in brain fever, from which he died September 10th, 1845, within twenty feet of where the Mormon prophet was shot. During his sickness, when delirious, four men were required to hold him in bed; he said they were coming to kill him. His dying request to mother was to give the boys educations if able, if not, trades."
He informs the reader that sixteen horses and two or three cows now crop the herbage above his father's grave. His uncle is buried there also. As an extenuating circumstance he observes:
"Instead of purchasing another lot in some better kept cemetery, and removing my father's and uncle's remains, I have devoted my time, and all the money and aid I could earn, borrow, or beg, with scarcely any assistance, in continuing my search for the evidence needed to prove the true origin of Mormonism. Various persons have respectfully called me a fool for so doing."
Not for this reason only, but owned and operated by A. B. Deming, a victim of circumstances, heredity, and newly apprehended truths. Fifty cents per year. Reduced rates to the "zealous" among the clergy and to young ladies Seminaries, if Deming succeeds in eluding the vigilance of Anthony Comstock. The paper differs from the Police Gazette in having no pictures. It is also a hundred times more destitute of truth.
No doubt some well-meaning persons, ignorant of Mr. Deming's character, (or want of it), and of his methods and motives, have been betrayed in stating an opinion or telling what their fathers said that they had heard, but when, in the first number of his paper, they see Deming display the vacuity of his mind and the foulness of his heart, in simpering unconsciousness of his awful state, such decent persons will blush that a mistaken sense of duty ever led them on general principles. I think most people will reaffirm the verdict with the "respectfully" left out. -- Perturbed shade of Deming's pere, rest! Although thou didst defy the laws of hygiene by braving the inclemency of a hot August day flannelles, yet soon as thy ghoulish offspring has finished his present "Burking" operations with sufficient profit, he intends to dig thee up!
Mr. Deming declares that his father was a friend to the "Mormons," and that although all his own misfortunes through life can be traced infallibly to that friendship, he is yet more friendly than was his father; and if they doubt it, just let them buy and read the "evidence" he intends to offer. Professing zeal for the spread of his alleged evidence, he has copyrighted the contents of his paper, and no "esteemed contemporary" shall quote more than one column, stating that said column has been taken from the "Odorous Excavator," to give their names to a creature whose acquaintance is polluting; whose praise is infamy; whose enmity is renown.
The favorite theory of those who have sought to disprove the Divine origin of the Book of Mormon, has always been that Sidney Rigdon obtained it at Patterson's printing office in Pittsburg, where it had been left by Mr. Spaulding, and that he gave it to Joseph Smith. By the most conclusive testimony, the whereabouts of the Spaulding Manuscript has been accounted for until after the publication of the Book of Mormon. It has been proven beyond the shadow of a doubt that during all this time it was either in the actual or constructive possession of Mr. Spaulding or the heirs; that after the publication of the Book of Mormon it was obtained by a person (Doctor Hurlbut, ED.) engaged in collecting material for a book against the Latter Day Saints, under the supposition -- the bare theory -- that Sidney Rigdon had copied it, and that the person obtaining it afterwards informed Mr. Spaulding's widow that, as it did not read as expected, it would not be published. Since then this manuscript has been recovered from Mr. Rice, late a resident of the Hawaiian Islands, and it has been published by the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints to show that it could not have been the basis of the Book of Mormon. True to his ghoulish nature, Mr. Deming leans upon the scythe, shakes his hour-glass encouragingly, and when he learns that receivers of the Manuscript (Hurlbut and Howe,) are actually dead, he informs the world that undoubtedly Mr. Howe sold the real Manuscript to the "Mormons" who destroyed it, and that the one found was a different one altogether, written, however, he admits, by Mr. Spaulding. Nay, should you find a thousand of Mr. Spaulding's romances, (the man being dead), Mr. Deming stands ready to assure you, on the honor of an honest body-snatcher, that he wrote still others!
In like manner it has been proven over and over again by unimpeachable witnesses, that Joseph Smith never saw Sidney Rigdon until after the publication of the Book of Mormon and the organization of the church. So long as these men were alive, no one ever attempted, by direct testimony, to prove the contrary. Nor, indeed, for years afterward. That exploit awaited the ripening mendacity of Arthur B. Deming. When reliably assured that all the parties competent to deny and disprove his statement are dead, he discovers a lady in San Francisco who once saw Sidney Rigdon at Joseph Smith's house. She was told that it was Sidney Rigdon by Saphronia, Joseph Smith's sister. Mr. Deming informs his readers that in some cases he does not give the exact words of his gossips, but interrogates them, doubtless encouragingly and suggestively, (one victim for "two days and two evenings"), taking notes the while, and when the unlucky wretch is quite exhausted and calls for fresh air, Deming selects such parts as he thinks will be marketable, and weaves them into a "statement" with the Deming flavor of clumsy fraud and imbecile malice infused, by which time the victim is willing to sign anything if it will only purchase his absence. In this way appears to have evolved the "statement" of the lady in question. She says, or is made to say, that she once saw a stranger at Mr. Smith's house, and that Sophronia Smith told her that it was Sidney Rigdon. She does not say, (even Deming does not make her say,) that this was before the publication of the Book of Mormon; but Deming asks the reader to infer, nay, to consider it proven that it was so. But if the lady should hereafter state that it was prior to that publication, would such evidence, in the light of the facts, have anything to commend it to any man or woman of candor and intelligence? What are the facts? All the questions against whom she would thus testify, have long been dead, and are therefore unable to deny and refute her testimony. They were, however, alive for years after the inferred occurrence, during which the Rigdon theory was often asserted as a matter of opinion, but never as a matter of fact. During this time no device was left untried to prove the collusion of Sidney Rigdon, and without success. In vain did they search for facts to fit their groundless theory. And why? Simply because there were no facts. The witnesses to prove the falsity of that theory were then living. They did prove it time and again. There are those living to-day who can prove it, but such are not the persons whom Mr. Deming's "statement-makers" quote. These content themselves with telling what persons long dead told them; and this, frequently with a false construction placed upon it, is brought forward by this professional defamer of the dead, as "evidence," forsooth! Upon such "evidence" the Son of God was crucified. Upon such "evidence" Stephen was stoned to death.
Upon such "evidence" Joseph Smith was murdered by a mob, for teaching none other things than Jesus commanded and the apostles taught; even that gospel concerning which Paul said, "Though I or an Angel from Heaven, preach any other gospel, let him be accursed." And yet devils, with only the transparent screen of A. B. Deming held up before them, can enlist Methodist ministers and a Bishop in making war against the gospel and those to whom it has been "the power of God unto salvation."
So far as regards Mr. Deming himself, it is not easy to be indignant. He is rather an object of alternative amusement, pity, and contempt. But what shall we say of the reverend gentlemen who, with the Bible in their hands, applaud this creature for assailing the very essence of the Bible? One of those reverend gentlemen, who in early life was "soundly converted," and "preached Methodism for fifty years," made a statement to Mr. Deming which Ananias would blush at. With a Satanic faculty of invention, he slanders the sainted mother of men whom all decent opponents respect; men whose lives are stainless monuments of integrity and of sacrifice for righteousness and truth. With unholy glee he relates approvingly, acts an intended acts, whose authors must have been among the vilest that ever disgraced the name of man. This statement was not published until after the maker of it, as Me. Deming remarks with extreme unction, had "departed in the triumph of a living faith;" therefore, how much of it is his and how much Deming's, it would be hard to tell.
Mr. Deming avers that he expects to be killed; be is obliged to be constantly on the alert to escape the sanguinary designs of parties vaguely described as "Danites." At a certain period the editor of the Presbyterian Banner writes, rejoicing to hear that Mr. Deming was still alive, and saying it had been reported that he had fallen a victim to the "Danites!" Make yourself easy, Mr. Editor. Your protoge has about him that mark of imbecility which shall be as serviceable as the brand of Cain. There is one person, however, that he should avoid, and that is the "fool-killer." Deming, beware!
And it is by such men as Mr. Deming, and by the methods he employs, that the enemy of souls now attempts to assail the gospel of Jesus Christ, and to make men satisfied with substitutes for it and perversions of it, knowing that the authorized administration of its original ordinances turns men from the power of Satan to God.
Little children, called to be Saints, know ye that He in whom ye have trusted, is faithful. Be not faithless, but believing. All power is given unto Him in heaven and on earth. It is the Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom. When there was no eye to pity and no hand to save, God committed the everlasting gospel to you through the prophet whose testimony ye have received. Concerning those who persecute you, pray as the Son, "Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do." Speak comfortably to my people. Pray for the peace of Zion. They shall prosper who love thee. Can a mother forget her suckling child? Yea, she may forget, yet I will not forget thee. As one whom his mother comforteth, so will I comfort thee. I was angry, and hid my face for a moment, but with everlasting kindness will I remember thee.
Note 1: The Herald editors treat the Inter Ocean article with much derision, even though they must have been aware (as early as May, 1879) that the Wilbur Fugate plates from Kinderhook were a hoax. The letter writer admittedly makes numerous mistakes in his account, however (substituting Quincy for Kinderhook, "John" Fugate for "Wilbur" Fugate, etc.), and he thus provides the Herald editors with plenty of room in which to criticize him, without their having to admit that the Kinderhook plates were an obvious fraud.
Note 2: Elder Jennings' spewing forth of journalistic vitriol upon Mr. Arthur B. Deming does not comport especially well with the message from scripture the same RLDS zealot offers in closing his review of the first issue of Naked Truths About Mormonism. In tone and evident editorial strategy, this article much resembles the "Spaulding-Smith Story" review published in the July 30, 1887 issue of the Herald, wherein the reviewer manages to avoid engaging the content of material he was reviewing altogether. To his credit, Elder Jennings at least finds two or three items provided by Deming's "statement-makers" which he manages to get around to mentioning. He seems to invest almost all of his defensive energy in combating the recollections of "a lady in San Francisco" (Mrs. Sarah Fowler Anderick) "who once saw Sidney Rigdon at Joseph Smith's house." Jennings gives the impression that he bought his copy of Deming's Oakland-based newspaper directly from a seller (perhaps from Deming himself) so, presumably, Jennings was in the Bay Area and could have contacted Sarah Anderick directly, in order to check out her story. Failing that, he might have called upon the services of RLDS Elder Hiram P. Brown, editor of the Oakland Expositor newspaper, to interview Mrs. Anderick and determine whether or not she was telling the truth. However, RLDS apologists and polemicists of the late 1800s rarely engaged in such personalized fact-finding.
Note 3: This is the same "charcoal" Deming (he sold "blood purifier" charcoal as a sideline) blasted by Hiram P. Brown in the previous issue of the Herald and the brother of the Rev. M. R. Deming whose story was featured on the front of the Dec. 31, 1887 issue of the Herald. Had Arthur made a clear "distinction between the genuine church and the Utah counterfeit" and concentrated his criticism upon Brigham Young and the Utahans, perhaps RLDS polemicists like Elder Jennings would have much less to complain about in the man's work and would have spilled less printer's ink in assassinating his character.
Note 4: Articles like the one written by Jennings and the one in the July 30, 1887 Herald, generally call upon the critics of Mormonism to offer some substantial evidence for their criticism. Deming did just that, in his over-hyped newspaper (he intended peddling it to railroad travelers but failed in that market), however the RLDS reviewer avoids dealing with that fact. In the same issue that featured the Mrs. Sarah Fowler Anderick's statement, Deming also provided significant statements by Matilda Spalding McKinstry (eye-witness to the writing of the "Manuscript Found"), James A. Briggs (who, in an open letter to Joseph Smith III reports having seen the "Manuscript Found"), and other important testifiers who were then yet living and available for interview by the Reorganized Mormons. Jennings faults Deming for having interviewed so many dead people, but Deming began his statement collecting in 1884 and only found a means to publish them in 1888. All of the people he interviewed, who were adult eye-witnesses to early Mormonism, were of course very elderly people by 1888. Deming was lucky to have had the opportunity to interview as many of these aged witnesses as he did (John C. Dowen, L. L. Rice, E. D. Howe, etc.) before they passed away.
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